Great circle distance

from the Artful Common Queries page

Find the distance in kilometres between two points on the surface of the earth. This is just the sort of problem stored functions were made for. For a first order approximation, ignore deviations of the earth's surface from the perfectly spherical. Then the distance in radians is given by a number of trigonometric formulas. ACOS and COS behave reasonably:

             COS(lat1-lat2)*(1+COS(lon1-lon2)) - COS(lat1+lat2)*(1-COS(lon1-lon2))
rads = ACOS( --------------------------------------------------------------------- )

We need to convert degrees latitude and longitude to radians, and we need to know the length in km of one radian on the earth's surface, which is 6378.388. The function:

set log_bin_trust_function_creators=TRUE;

  DECLARE pi, q1, q2, q3 FLOAT;
  SET pi = PI();
  SET lat1 = lat1 * pi / 180;
  SET lon1 = lon1 * pi / 180;
  SET lat2 = lat2 * pi / 180;
  SET lon2 = lon2 * pi / 180;
  SET q1 = COS(lon1-lon2);
  SET q2 = COS(lat1-lat2);
  SET q3 = COS(lat1+lat2);
  SET rads = ACOS( 0.5*((1.0+q1)*q2 - (1.0-q1)*q3) ); 
  RETURN 6378.388 * rads;

-- toronto to montreal (505km):
select geodistkm(43.6667,-79.4167,45.5000,-73.5833);
| geodistkm(43.6667,-79.4167,45.5000,-73.5833) |
|                           505.38836669921875 |

(Setting log_bin_trust_function_creators is the most convenient way to step round determinacy conventions implemented since 5.0.6.)

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